The Seedy Side of the Sea

The sea is best known for not only facilitating global trade but also effortlessly channelling its major chunk through a complex web of interfaces, better known as ports, scattered all over the continental coastline. The recreational needs that it fulfills in addition, by way of cruises, pleasure yachting, sailing, surfing, scuba diving, island hopping and what-have-you, are all perhaps more satisfying on a personal level.

What is lesser known, however, are those horrendous happenings which not only converts a pacific medium into the ‘outlaw sea’, but also causes it to be dubbed as the ‘greatest crime scene in the world’.

Piracy for one is nothing new and is something that has plagued mankind ever since its more intrepid specimens set sail for commerce and exploration. Julius Caesar has arguably been its most celebrated victim, whose ransoming didn’t however prove to be too conducive to the health of his erstwhile captors.

Side by side with piracy, largely stifled to a great extent barring the Gulf of Guinea, other crimes, cloaked in secrecy, have blossomed. Over time, the sea has become highly valued as a law-evading medium since it is neither substantially policed nor does it have marked borders like on land. From the illegal transportation of humans, drugs and arms to unauthorised poaching and the dumping of toxic waste, the sea has seen it all. Insofar as a ship at sea is concerned, there are five major stakeholders it is beholden to: the vessel’s owner, charterer (if applicable), the exporter/importer of goods it is carrying, the vessel’s registry and finally its crew. The foremost slot is occupied by the ship’s place of registration, or in other words its nationality, whose job it is to ensure that the vessel remains shipshape, that it doesn’t drift beyond well-established functional and legal guidelines, and to discipline those responsible if it does. Owners however predominantly prefer their vessels to fly a flag of convenience, which gives them greater flexibility to do as they please without being taken to task.

Being the only ones out at sea, the axe mostly falls on the poor seafarers whenever anything goes awry. They are the ones most hard-pressed too, owing to their bleak working conditions. Braving isolation, harsh weather conditions and work overload, many seamen struggle with severe psychological ailments for which no help is readily forthcoming.

Around 4000 seamen are believed to lose their lives at sea every year without apparently generating too many ripples on land. The sad part is that most of these accidents are avoidable, being typically linked to lax safety procedures and lack of oversight. In one such incident, 22 of the 24 crew members onboard the Korean-owned STELLAR DAISY lost their lives when the vessel sank in the cold waters of the South Atlantic in March 2017. The vessel’s faulty redesign, while being converted from a VLCC to VLOC a decade earlier is believed to have contributed to its fate. Weather conditions, particularly freak waves, have also been known to sweep crew members away from the deck without a trace.

It is generally seen that regardless of where the fault may lie, it is always those at sea that face the immediate consequences. Many cases have come to light where ships, mostly decrepit ones, are simply abandoned ashore whenever their owners are confronted with straitened financial circumstances. Despite deteriorating conditions onboard, as food, water and electricity begins to run out, the crew clings on to the ship in the vain hope of collecting their back dues.

In one such case involving a payment dispute between the ship owner and the vessel’s fuel supplier, Indian offshore service provider Tag Offshore abandoned an oil tanker, along with its 17 member crew off the Jawaharlal Nehru port. One can just about imagine the distressing state of affairs onboard, when the fuel starts running out, causing disruption to lighting, air-conditioning and garbage disposal facilities. After the Maritime Union of India and National Union of Seafarers of India admitted their helplessness in the matter, the Mumbai High Court came to their rescue by taking cognisance of the matter on the basis of writ petitions filed before it. It ordered the disembarkation of the crew without attracting any civil and/or criminal liability for doing so. The crew can thus consider themselves luckier than most. In this and many similar cases, the Captain and crew are mainly used as pawns for the expeditious settlement of monetary claims.

For quite some time, the UAE has become a preferred spot for abandoning vessels offshore. At one stage, as many as 31 sailors stood stranded on seven such vessels, some for up to two years. Their agony stem from the financial woes of the shipowners, with their own salaries being put on the line. Some crew members prefer to stick it out in the vain hope of recovering their back pay, while others are forced to opt for repatriation. The International Maritime Organisation has now stepped in to provide some relief by making insurance, which would cover crew salaries for up to four months, as well as repatriation costs, compulsory.

Ocean-going fishing vessels however take top prize as far as cruelty towards the crew is concerned. One of the worst of such documented cases occurred in January 1999 onboard a Taiwanese fishing trawler around 1000 miles North East of Mauritius, when its Captain went berserk and ended up killing half of its 25 man crew by the time he was through.

It’s not only the crew which gets a raw deal; passengers too get in the way of the sea’s wrath at times. More than 300 people, most of them students and their teachers on a high school outing to a nearby island, lost their lives in the Sewol ferry disaster of 2014. Many passengers are also known to have fallen over the side, while a  considerable number have complained of having been sexually assaulted. Cruise ship consortiums are understandably keen to play down such concerns to prevent it from adversely affecting their business. Since a large number of Americans go on Caribbean cruises, US law mandates the FBI to investigate cases involving American citizens, regardless of whether the cruise ship docks or does not dock in a US port. Even after having established jurisdiction, what happens next is ‘murky’, for as the President of the International Cruise Victims Association graphically puts it, that when he talks to ‘100 different FBI field agents, I would get 100 different answers’.

The most problematic aspect of crimes being committed onboard is the difficulty experienced in obtaining justice. In a recent case, a Spanish judge let a sexual assault accused go, since he felt he had no jurisdiction over a crime reported to have taken place in international waters. In theory, the Captain is responsible for maintaining the peace, but in practise, the best he can do is to hand over the suspects to the nearest convenient port. He simply doesn’t possess the required prosecution and judicial wherewithal. In theory again, jurisdiction devolves to the country whose flag the ship flies, but in practise, most cruise ships fly a flag of convenience, tagged to a country that doesn’t have the will nor the resources to investigate distant crimes, well beyond its shores.

In theory again, with respect to the case referred to earlier, there is nothing preventing the country to which the victim belongs (UK in this case), or the country to which the suspect is a citizen of (Italy in this case) from taking up the matter. In practise again, owing to the ambiguity embedded in international law, such countries prefer to lie low.

Some ships like the MV Dona Liberta, a rusty refrigerator vessel, referred to as scofflaws, appear to have thrown all caution to the winds. It routinely abused, cheated and even abandoned its crew, caused an oil slick nearly 100 miles long, accumulated unpaid debts of millions of dollars, with its parent company being suspected of illegal fishing operations. The ship not only got away with all this and continued to operate freely, the surprising thing is that it was never short of work or seafarers. At the end of the day, all it took was new ownership, a fresh coat of paint, a new name and a fresh registry to wash away its tainted past.

The problem lies not in legislation, of which there is no dearth. The International Maritime Organisation has promulgated hundreds of rules, regulations and codes governing all safety, security, welfare and training aspects. The shipping industry itself has issued reams of guidelines, while dozens of mutual maritime pacts have been signed. It’s the enforcement part that is lax: national and international agencies have neither the resources nor the inclination to track down and prosecute wrongdoing at sea.

The unscrupulous find an unlikely ally in jurisdictional ambiguity. Take the case of the Dona Liberta: the ship was owned by a Greek company incorporated in Liberia, crewed primarily by Filipinos, captained by an Italian and flagged to the Bahamas. So if the crime was committed in international waters, “who”, asks Mark Young (a retired US Coast Guard Commander) rhetorically, “leads such an investigation?”

As Shakespeare said,

‘The brain may devise laws for the blood,

But a hot temper leaps o’er a cold decree.’

And out at sea, out of sight, those with criminal intent are the ones with the hottest tempers.

Maritime Security – Challenges and Response

There was a time in the not-too-distant past when the concept of maritime security was closely tied to the traditional use of naval military power for the protection of one’s coast and maritime interests. For the more robust naval powers, such security was ensured through naval power projection, while relatively weaker states had little option but to rely on defensive means.

 

Till the time UNCLOS ‘82 took effect, the ground rules for marshalling the maritime environment were unfortunately laid by those states which were already de facto in a position of control. The term ‘mare nostrum’ (our sea) was coined by the Romans in 30 BCE to describe their total grip over the Mediterranean Sea. In 1609 ACE, Hugo Grotius, a Dutch philosopher-cum-jurist, introduced the concept of ‘Mare Liberum’ (free sea) enjoining the freedom of navigation at sea. This came at a time when the Dutch were trying to make deeper inroads into the Indian Ocean trading system and their expectation of a level playing field was hindered by the firm Portuguese grip over the ocean’s chokepoints. Around 27 years later, an English academic, John Selden, came out in support of ‘mare clausum’ (closed sea), meaning thereby that the sea was in practise as capable of appropriation as land territory. This led to the emergence of numerous conflicting claims which had the potential of fomenting perpetual chaos had not better sense gradually prevailed.

 

The most crucial development so far was the coming into force of UNCLOS ‘82. This Convention not only conferred proportionate rights on all coastal, and even non-coastal, states, but more importantly, invested them with vital stakes in the maintenance of stability at sea.

 

UNCLOS ‘82 is best understood as a framework providing a basic foundation for the international law of the oceans, and which is intended to be extended and elaborated upon through more specific international agreements and the evolving customs of states. These extensions are continually emerging, making the law of the sea at once broader, more complex and more detailed than UNCLOS.

Just as international law has continued to evolve, so have threats to good order at sea, the difference being that while the former is positive in nature, the other foments instability.

 

The one thing that is most central to a nation’s well-being is its ability to trade freely across continents. A country’s natural resources, along with a matching value-adding capacity, are all meaningless if a corresponding ability to trade is denied. The importance of the sea can thus easily be envisaged when one realises that more than 85% of world trade is conducted through this medium. This also helps explain why during both the world wars, one of the foremost missions assigned to the navies of both the adversarial powers was to protect one’s own sea trade, while denying it to the other side. Apart from scenarios where national interests trump collective needs, the twin concepts of the sea as being a common heritage of mankind, from which all states benefit from, and of the freedom of the sea, has now firmly taken root. This augurs well for all coastal states.

 

From Pakistan’s perspective, disruptions may occur if a war or near war situation arises. How the country deals with such emerging threats falls in the realm of naval strategy and tactics.

 

Let me however add that all the major maritime powers, as well as the countries straddling the Persian Gulf, have vast stakes in keeping the international sea trade routes open, and may not take too kindly to any form of disruption in a two-sided war. Belligerents too, if convinced that no significant advantage is likely to be accrued by disrupting their adversary’s sea trade while their own is equally vulnerable, may well decide to steer clear of what has been termed as guerre de course. And therein lies the value of deterrence.

 

These days, as Dr Christian Bueger has pointed out, maritime security has simply become a buzzword and barring a consensus on what it encompasses, it still serves the useful need of drawing attention to new challenges and rallying support for tackling them. The maritime security matrix is thus broadly linked to national security, human security, marine environment and economic development.

 

This brings us to non-traditional challenges at sea, which adversely impacts all the above-named issues in one way or another. These may take the form of terrorism, piracy, poaching, narco-smuggling, gun-running, human trafficking and environmental degradation. Such threats have not only attained prominence, but tend to crop up in areas where they face the least resistance.

 

It was the 1985 hijacking of the passenger liner Achille Lauro in the Mediterranean, which resulted in the senseless killing of a paraplegic passenger, that brought the issue of maritime terrorism in the spotlight. The ensuing deliberations led to the adoption of the UN Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Marine Navigation (SUA Convention in short) in 1988.

The magnitude of the 9/11 terrorist attacks ushered in its wake the stark realisation that a similar attack on any major maritime hub could very well cause an immeasurable dent in the global economy. The US, feeling particularly vulnerable, kept launching one initiative after another: The Container Security Initiative, Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism, Maritime Transportation Security Act, Megaports Initiative, Proliferation Security Initiative, SAFE Ports Act and Secure Freight Initiative.

 

As far as the global community was concerned, the greatest breakthrough in strengthening maritime security occurred in December 2002 at an IMO-sponsored conference, where the International Ship & Port Facility Security Code was unveiled. Since it was tabled as an amendment to the existing Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Convention, it’s compliance became mandatory for the 148 SOLAS contracting parties. The ISPS Code provides mandatory requirements for governments, port authorities and shipping companies, as well as guidance for implementation.

Because of its unpredictable nature and massive devastation potential, terrorism poses the most significant risk by far to merchantmen and even naval vessels. The bombing of the USS Cole, while at the Aden anchorage, in 2000, and MV Lindberg off the coast of Yemen in 2002, both rammed by explosives-laden dinghies, best illustrate the nature of this threat, though not its full potential.

 

Piracy poses the next biggest threat. The Malacca Straits, the South China Sea, the Bay of Bengal and the Gulf of Guinea display marked vulnerabilities. Yet when compared to Somali piracy in its heyday (2005-2012), these are mere pinpricks. In Somalia, what started off as a local endeavour to curb rampant poaching and dumping of toxic waste in its lawless waters, grew into a full-blown piratical enterprise. It spiralled out of control by 2008, when fabulous sums of money were being raked in as ransom for captured vessels, cargo and crew. In 2010 alone, pirates seized close to 50 vessels, taking nearly 1200 seamen as hostages. And from this peak, piracy dwindled gradually in 2011 and more rapidly the next. What caused such piracy to flourish in the first place was a belated and disjointed international response. A number of high value interdictions had finally forced a large number of warships to converge onto the high risk areas by 2009, either as part of international groupings like the EUs Operation Atalanta, NATOs Operation Ocean Shield or the international coalition’s CTF 151, or as individual units, to protect their country’s national interests. At the end of the day, piracy off Somalia, which had spread its tentacles to the furthest reaches of the western Indian Ocean, was brought under control through a series of coordinated steps:

  1. Broad-based UN resolutions authorising the international community to tackle the threat in a collaborative manner by targeting the planners, facilitators and perpetrators of piracy, not only within Somali waters but also within its land territory if required.
  2. Preparation, dissemination and updating of an industry-backed initiative outlining best management practises to deter piracy.
  3. Authorising merchantmen traversing the area to carry armed guards for protection.
  4. Imposition of banking curbs on UK banks in particular, to complicate the issue of ransom payments.
  5. Setting up of a task force aimed at targeting the organisers, financiers and negotiators behind the piracy enterprise.
  6. Encouraging the collaborative capacity building of regional states.

 

Malacca Strait is a high density traffic lane. Once realisation sunk in that trade disruptions in this corridor were inimical to the regional economy, the three major countries straddling the waterway, namely Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia, started containment efforts through effective coordination in the form of ReCAAP and commencement of joint patrols, which proved immensely successful. The only major flashpoint at the moment is the Gulf of Guinea, where the principal player, Nigeria, needs to spearhead a similar initiative. The G8++ Friends of the Gulf of Guinea (FOGG) group tries to help out with the capacity-building of regional states.

Side by side with piracy, other crimes too have blossomed, largely unchecked.

 

Criminal enterprises find the medium to be an inviting one, since the vast expanse of the sea makes effective policing difficult. From the illegal transportation of humans, drugs and arms to poaching and the dumping of toxic waste, the sea has seen it all.

 

Maritime security is also endangered by crimes committed at sea. The most problematic aspect of such crimes is the difficulty  in obtaining justice. In theory, the Captain is responsible for maintaining the peace, but in practise, the best he can do is to hand over the suspects to the nearest convenient port. He simply doesn’t possess the required persecution and judicial wherewithal. In theory again, jurisdiction devolves to the country whose flag the ship flies, but in practise, most ships fly a flag of convenience, tagged to a country that neither has the will nor the resources to investigate crimes that occur well beyond its shores.

 

Pakistan faces more or less the same threats, though in varying degrees. Effectively countering such diverse threats in such a vast medium is indeed an uphill task. Pakistan’s job is made even more difficult due to a number of glaring deficiencies, which I shall discuss in due course.

 

Pakistan’s biggest problem used to be the complete lack of coordination at the ministerial, departmental and field levels. It was left to the Pakistan Navy to take the initiative to bring together all the country’s public sector agencies with a stake in maritime security on the same grid. The Joint Maritime Information and Coordination Centre that was set up at Manora includes reps from all associated agencies for effective coordination. The Centre has not only been working smoothly since February 2013, it has also established working linkages with other regional info sharing portals, most notably the Information Fusion Centre at Singapore. With the aim of further expanding its access to maritime-related information, the Pakistan Navy joined the Trans Regional Maritime Network (T-RMN), a 32-nation group based in Italy, in October 2019.

 

While info sharing and coordination are undoubtedly important, their contribution would not amount to much were it not for a corresponding ability to act. Pakistan’s Maritime Security Agency, which was setup soon after UNCLOS ‘82 was opened up for signature, is primarily responsible for monitoring breaches of the Convention. The Pakistan Navy, by virtue of being endowed with effective long range surveillance and enforcement platforms, happens to be an exceedingly viable instrument that the country has at its disposal for underwriting its maritime security.

 

Realising that the most effective way of countering the common hybrid menaces that recognizes no boundaries is through regional alliances, the Pakistan Navy, till recently, had been a regular participant of Combined Task Forces 150 and 151, both of which it had the honour of commanding multiple times. The US-led CTF 150 had been set up in the wake of the UN-sanctioned invasion of Afghanistan, with the prime objective of ensuring maritime security in the Arabian Sea by undertaking counterterrorism operations. When piracy incidents off Somalia started registering a sharp uptick, a dedicated Combined Task Force 151 was set up to patrol, monitor and counter piracy in general, in the Gulf of Yemen. Based on the friendships forged and experiences gained through such multi-Naval enterprises, the Pakistan Navy has since instituted its own Regional Maritime Security Patrols.

 

While on the subject of implementation, it may be worthwhile to mention that the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea is not the be-all and end-all of all maritime matters. While correctly dubbed as an informal constitution of the oceans, it mostly lays down broad principles, leaving the elaboration of rules to other treaties. The International Maritime Organisation, an organ of the United Nations, essays an oversized role in the promulgation and regular updating of all maritime-related conventions and codes.

 

As far as maritime security in essence is concerned, the most relevant piece of legislation is the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code, which came into being soon after the 9/11 attacks and is a part and parcel of the SOLAS Convention. The primary objective of this code is to ensure the strengthening of security measures in order to deal effectively with all emerging maritime security threats. As per this code, Pakistan, as a contracting government, is supposed to conduct port facility security assessments, evaluate risks and prepare port security plans. All ships are required, amongst other things, to carry a Continuous Synopsis Record (CSR), and have an Automatic Information System (AIS), Ship Security Alert System (SSAS) and Long Range Identification and Tracking System (LRIT) fitted on board. While Pakistan is broadly complying with these steps, what it lacks at the moment is an effective regulatory mechanism.

 

The SUA Convention of 1988, as mentioned earlier, enjoins global collaboration to combat violent crimes at sea. The primary thrust of this Convention is to prevent people from endangering the safety of ship, crew or passengers. Ship masters are obliged to deliver offenders along with evidence to port of entry, while state parties have been made responsible for jurisdiction over offenders. It all looks fine on paper, but as I mentioned earlier, most masters and even state parties prefer to look the other way when confronted with vile occurrences at sea.

 

In broad terms, degradation of the marine environment also poses a grave threat to maritime security. IMO has accordingly adopted strict anti-pollution standards for ships courtesy of the MARPOL Convention. It may however be stressed that pollution of the sea through land-based sources poses a far graver threat. This is regulated through several regional treaties, most of which have been adopted under the aegis of the UN Environmental Program. Pakistan’s Environmental Protection Agency needs to take a lead from such UN initiatives.

 

Apart from regulatory issues, Pakistan is notoriously lax in formulating its own domestic legislation. When international treaties are not wedded to domestic law, implementation understandably poses difficulties. For instance, if the offence of piracy is not outlawed through domestic legislation, and piracy is not included in our penal code as a criminal act, how is Pakistan expected to prosecute pirates that it has captured. Likewise, in the absence of domestic legislation, how can Pakistani law enforcers prevent ships from dumping oil, sludge, ballast or other toxic substances in our coastal waters or prosecute them if caught. Maritime or Admiralty courts are also required for trying offences of a specialised nature, like commercial shipping matters, salvage, collisions, groundings etc.

 

Most of the challenges currently being faced at sea have taken on a transnational, trans-boundary and hybrid flavour. Such threats can only effectively be countered by remaining a step or two ahead ahead of the criminals who feed on them. In Pakistan’s case, that not only involves restructuring at the ministerial, departmental and field levels, but also forging regional partnerships.

 

All coastal states are expected to act responsibly and in tandem with each other by beefing up their port and ship-related security measures to minimise security incidents. Pakistan is expected to, and should, do all it can to ensure its own security and by extension that of the broader global maritime community. Having been plagued by terrorism for the better part of four decades, the country cannot afford its spillover into the maritime domain.

Promoting Peace and Partnerships at Sea

The sea has historically and traditionally been a medium of contrasts. Its seemingly placid surface yields easily to an undulating intensity, and it doesn’t take long for gale force winds to develop into destructive storms. An unruffled sea one moment and not long after, triggered by a massive underwater quake, a tsunami sweeps countless shores with unrelenting fury. Legitimate trade likewise plies side by side with illegal trafficking.

The stakes these days are considerably higher. The entire global economy currently relies on international trade, of which as much as 85% is conducted through the medium of the sea. Threats to the global socio-economic order doesn’t just stem from piracy as in the past, but are now so diverse in character that it has led many analysts to dub the oceans as the ‘biggest crime scene in the world’. The vastness of the interconnected oceans, with enforcement and jurisdiction challenges of their own, offers an appetising opening to organised criminal
enterprises to benefit from, by stealthily operating under the radar, so to speak. The use of inconspicuous vessels for undertaking such illegal activities compound problems related to policing and detection. Stoppages of commercial vessels for search on mere suspicion causes
unacceptable disruption in world trade. In the Arabian Sea, dhows, extensively used for legitimate coastal trade, have been seen to traffic in contraband cargo. Boats designed for fishing, an activity that provides livelihood to around 12% of the global population, are known to indulge in various illegal acts, like piracy and drug smuggling, on the side.
The bombing of the USS Cole, while at anchor at Aden in 2000, and MV Lindberg off the coast of Yemen in 2002, both rammed by explosive-laden dinghies, brought the spectre of maritime
terrorism to center stage. The tabling of the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code in December 2002, as an amendment to the existing Safety of Life at Sea Convention 1974/78, which incorporated mandatory requirements and implementation guidelines to signatory governments, port authorities and shipping companies, provided the impetus for strengthening global maritime security through individual as well as coordinated efforts. There can however be no doubt that the one sure way of effectively confronting the multitude of threats tending to disturb good order at sea, it is through concerted action featuring a collaborative approach.
Somali piracy in the Gulf of Aden and the western Indian Ocean was curbed in large part by the convergence of warships from as many as 29 countries which, operating either singly or in groups like the EUs Operation Atalanta, NATOs Operation Ocean Shield or CTF 151, were all bound together by a shared objective. Regional initiatives like the IMO-sponsored Djibouti Code of Conduct played a significant role too in this endeavour. The Jeddah amendment of 2017 has seen the scope of the alliance widened to include the combatting of all illegal activities, and not just piracy, at sea.
Recognising that maritime security would remain a mirage if it wasn’t backed up by actionable intelligence, the Republic of Singapore Navy took the much-needed initiative to set up an Information Fusion Center in April 2009 at its Changi Naval Base. This regional center has by now established linkages with 71 Operation Centers from 38 countries, with 16 International Liaison Officers being based there as well. Another notable regional initiative has been that of the Indian Ocean Naval Symposium. Fashioned after the Western Pacific Naval Symposium, IONS has attracted not only the Indian
Ocean littoral states, but also welcomes extra-regional countries with a stake in the region. The Conclave of Chiefs, which forms an integral part of every biennial symposium, ensures that not only are views exchanged, coordinated responses are also agreed upon at the highest naval level. The overarching objective of the conference after all is to evolve and act upon a unified plan of action against the multitude of maritime security challenges plaguing the region. With the
redesignation of the US Pacific Command to Indo-Pacific Command last year, the interest of the United States in the region in general and IONS in particular is bound to increase.
Pak-US relations may have witnessed many ups and downs over the years, but the one area where their interests have always coincided is that of the sea. In fact, it was a CENTO-related naval exercise held in Pakistani waters in November 1963 that facilitated the maiden entry of
the US Navy in the Indian Ocean. This was followed by a stopover at the port of Karachi in August 1964 of three newly-built nuclear vessels, the USS Enterprise, Long Beach and Bainbridge, during their unprecedented around-the-world unrefuelled cruise to demonstrate the efficacy of nuclear propulsion.
Though CENTO as an organisation could not stand the test of durability, its annual naval exercises, aptly codenamed MIDLINK, conducted alternately in Pakistani and Iranian waters,
showcased the visibility and camaraderie of the US, Iranian, Pakistani and Royal navies. These exercises, while they lasted (till the disbandment of CENTO in 1978), prized the promotion of
partnerships and interoperability over Cold War theatrics.
USN warships however continued to remain a familiar sight in the North Arabian Sea. Port calls at Karachi were invariably followed by Passexes (passage exercises) or by a series of bilateral exercises codenamed Inspired Siren. It was in one of the latter exercises in 1995 that a USN warship, utilising its shipborne helicopter and a trained ship boarding party, practically demonstrated the concept of VBSS (Vessel Board Search & Seizure). This has considerably
assisted the Pakistan Navy in refining its procedures to undertake search operations at sea in a safe and effective manner. And indeed, when CTF 150 was set up in the wake of the UN-sanctioned invasion of
Afghanistan, the Pakistan Navy had neither any qualms in offering its services nor did it face any problems in fully integrating itself in the workings of this task force. Pakistan Navy went on to subsequently command this force, whose area of operations included some of the world’s busiest sea lanes, a record ten times. Likewise, when another Combined Task Force, CTF 151, was established in January 2009 to pursue a specific counter piracy mandate, the Pakistan Navy not only signed on immediately, but went on to command it too for eight times. The experience gained by the Pakistan Navy through participation in these task forces has enabled it to further fulfill its international obligations by launching the Regional Maritime Security
Patrols. The Pakistan Navy further solidified its credentials as a force for good by initiating a series of biennial exercises codenamed Aman (Peace), the first of which was held in early 2007. The sixth in the series, held in February this year, brought together as many as 45 countries on a common platform of pursuing the cause of peace at sea. It is always a heartwarming sight to see representatives from countries as disparate as the US, Russia, China, Iran and Saudi Arabia braving political divides to attend conferences, briefings, sports fixtures, food galas and international cultural displays in the same spirit that their warships undertake an International Fleet Review at sea.
Non-traditional challenges at sea have not only proliferated over the years but tend to crop up in areas where they face the least resistance. In a canvas as vast as the sea, its resident challenges, being trans-boundary in nature, are bound to be complex enough to test the limits of an individual navy or other maritime law enforcement agency. Surveillance, vigilance, maritime patrols, intelligence gathering and info sharing are all naval missions required to be undertaken
in a well-coordinated manner if the genie of instability at sea is to be kept bottled up. Where land divides, it is said, the sea unites. And such unity is direly needed if the global objective of freedom of navigation, to the exclusion of all else, is to be realised. Pacem in Maribus, Peace on the Seas, can only come about if all responsible coastal states reach out across the sea to clasp hands in the pursuit of a common purpose.

 

Note: This article was published in the winter 2019 issue of the quarterly magazine UNIPATH, which covers US CENTCOMs area of responsibility.

Inching towards a Blue Economy

 

Pakistan’s policy makers have often faced criticism for turning a blind eye to the bounties the sea has to offer. The emergence of the port of Gwadar has, to be sure, not only generated awareness about the potential of the maritime sector but has also resulted in governmental approvals for the setting up of a new shipyard and new ship recycling facilities in this remote western outpost. There are other hopeful signs too: a new deepwater container port off Karachi, a coal handling terminal at Bin Qasim and two regasification terminals at the same port are now all functional, while a more determined offshore oil exploration effort is also underway after a gap of nine years.

Ask any maritime practitioner, or policy maker for that matter, about what it takes to become a maritime power, and this is exactly the sort of medicine he would prescribe: build more ports, build more terminals, construct more ships, operate more cargo vessels, develop more shipyards, set up more ship recycling facilities, and so on, conveniently forgetting that all these activities are spurred by market forces. The seeming profitability of public sector enterprises like Pakistan National Shipping Corporation, Karachi Shipyard & Engineering Works, Karachi Port Trust and Port Qasim Authority blindsides us to the true reality behind this facade. It is not a worthwhile bargain if their gain is at the expense of the consumer or the public exchequer. Genuine progress can never occur unless outmoded concepts like right of first refusal, dependence on captive cargo, uncompetitive bids and ruthless labour exploitation (as in the case of our ship recycling yards at Gadani) are replaced with the universally accepted ones of innovation, client satisfaction, foresightedness, efficiency and competitiveness. Audit and analysis are the first tottering steps towards improvement, for unless we absorb the lessons of the past, we will never be wiser tomorrow than we are today. While taking understandable pride in the port of Gwadar, let us not sidestep hard questions like how much revenue its port authority has generated so far since the completion of its first phase in December 2005? Or why hasn’t its Industrial Zone taken off yet? Or for that matter, when will KPT finally recoup the investment made in the much-heralded Karachi Deepwater Container Terminal (now known as the South Asian Port Terminal Ltd)? Or how long will our fish stocks last if present trends of overfishing, pollution and use of illegal fishing methods persist? And while being thankful to the ship recycling yards at Gadani for their valued contribution to the national exchequer, let us not forget to shed a tear at the ruthless exploitation of labour (sans any regulatory framework) which has made this possible. ‘However beautiful the strategy,’ Churchill is reported to have observed, ‘you should occasionally look at the results.’ And the results, in our case, should not purely be restricted to monetary statistics.

It is clear that we have chosen not to profit from our own mistakes. But if we decide to seek inspiration from those that have excelled in one maritime field or another, there are models aplenty. The example of the post-WW2 Japanese ship-building industry, overshadowing all other competition, followed in due course by South Korea and China, is frequently quoted. A small country like Denmark hosts the largest shipping company in the world (Maersk). The largest number of cargo ships are Greek-owned, most of them being in private hands. The port of Rotterdam continues to retain its top position in Europe’s highly competitive environment, owing to its edge in innovation and its emphasis on client satisfaction. Philippines, with hardly 1% of the world’s population, provides 20% of its seafarers. Vietnamese fish exports, most of it obtained through aquaculture, are touching the ten billion dollar mark.

A word of caution though, which our policy makers may do well to heed: no model can be blindly followed without similar pre-conditions existing. The best course of action is thus to study all such success stories, but chart an independent trail in sync with our national priorities and levels of competence.

Our obsession with the twin goddesses of hype and profitability prevents us perhaps from noticing a relatively new buzzword, that of the ‘blue economy’, which the global maritime community is all agog about. This concept was formally unveiled at the UN Conference on Sustainable Development held in Rio de Janeiro in 2012. Instead of focussing exclusively on economic growth, the ‘blue economy’ concept seeks to generate livelihoods and promote social inclusion, with the underlying premise, often ignored, that unless the health of the surrounding ocean and its fragile ecosystem is invested in, the social and economic benefits being derived will continue to decline. Apart from traditional coast and sea based activities, which forms our current area of interest, the blue economy continues to unfold and embrace multiple facets of the maritime economy. Its diverse components such as mariculture, offshore renewable energy, seabed extractive activities, marine biotechnology and marine bioprospecting possess the potential to offer dividends way beyond our wildest imagination.

In a blue economy, as mentioned earlier, the keyword is sustainability; this can however only be accomplished if the ocean and its fragile ecosystems are kept healthy and resilient enough to be able to support economic growth, not only to our benefit but also to that of our future generations.

The world in general has certainly not been kind to the oceans so far, with the shocking plunge in ocean health being directly linked to human activities. Sea warming, ocean acidity, mercury pollution and rise in seawater levels have been caused by the excessive amounts of anthropogenic carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases that land processes have produced and that the oceans have been forced to absorb. The massive quantities of waste products being regularly spewed into the sea, with plastic products taking 450 years to degrade, has resulted in the creation of dead zones, with all this toxicity having combined to utterly devastate the marine habitat and coral reefs, which form the ocean’s, and in turn the land’s, life support system. A full one-fourth of the world’s mangrove cover has been wiped out during the past two decades.

Pakistan’s situation is even more dire than the global average. Tens of millions of tons of domestic waste, raw sewage, hospital discards, industrial effluents and agricultural nutrients are literally being generated in the country every day, all of which, in the absence of any safe disposal arrangements, finds its way to the rivers, creeks and canals, where they not only pollute the country’s limited sources of drinking water, but also bring innumerable diseases in its wake. The unchecked pollution of Sindh’s 1200 odd freshwater lakes is destroying the traditional livelihoods and way of life of the province’s fishing communities.

The unprecedented level of pollution in the mega city of Karachi, likewise, has resulted in unimaginable amounts of waste products being unceremoniously dumped into the sea, as if it was some kind of a giant garbage bin. Karachi harbour too, over time, has deteriorated to an extent that not even a single National Environmental Quality standard is being met. The extraordinary levels of toxic elements like chromium, lead, chlorides and sulphates, coupled with the low conductivity experienced, forms a corrosive mix that, apart from decimating all manner of marine life, whittles away at the submerged port infrastructure and causes extensive damage to ships berthed inside the harbour.

The Indus Delta used to be historically interspersed with natural river courses, which, braided with smaller tributaries formed a natural drainage system, permitting agricultural, fishing and trading communities to thrive.  Badly planned infrastructural developments, and severely curtailed water flows downstream, have devastated the traditional sources of livelihood, forcing people to relocate. Strident proponents of new dams in the country, who frequently cite the example of copious amounts of water being ‘wasted’ into the sea, may find it difficult to accept that freshwater scarcity in the delta in most months of the year has not only wiped out all the freshwater strains of mangroves, but also allowed the sea to intrude unhindered into the hinterland (more than 70 km in places) to the point where the breadbasket of Karachi, Malir, is under threat.

International regulations for environmental conservation are all in place. International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships 1973/78 prescribes strict anti-pollution standards for ships and all types of toxic cargo. Pollution of the sea from other sources is regulated by various regional treaties, most of which have been adopted under the UN Environmental Programme. The 2009 Hong Kong International Convention for the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships (not yet entered in force though) deals with all aspects of the recycling process, from the design, construction, operation and preparation of ships to the use of such facilities. Guidelines on fisheries conservation and management of the EEZ are contained in the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries adopted in 1995 by the UN Food & Agriculture Organisation. Principle 21 of the Stockholm Declaration of 1972 seeks to strike a balance between a state’s sovereignty and its responsibility to ensure that its activities and the activities of its citizens do not cause environmental harm to other states or to areas beyond national jurisdiction. A useful lesson to absorb here is that sovereignty and responsibility go hand in hand.

The Ballast Water Management Convention, which came into force in September 2017, requires ships to manage their ballast water effectively, which in turn will prevent the spread of invasive aquatic species that possess the potential to cause havoc to the local ecosystems. The International Maritime Organisation has also enacted rules that aim to cap sulphur emissions at 0.5% of fuel content by January 2020, compared to 3.5% at present. As a flag state, Pakistan thus needs to take an immediate decision on whether to invest in costly scrubbers for its ships or rely on expensive low sulphur gas fuel from foreign refineries.

So though comprehensive international agreements are all there, the problem confronting Pakistan is whether it has the will and the wherewithal to enforce them in our waters and in our own ships, for which the necessary domestic legislation is a prerequisite. And domestic legislation is certainly not our forte.

Another concept that has escaped our notice is that of Integrated Coastal Zone Management. It was the Rio Earth Summit of 1992 that inter alia formalised the ICZM concept by according a special status of its own to the coastal arena. At its heart is a recognition that both terrestrial and oceanic processes are not only at work in the coastal region, but their activities and impacts are intricately interlinked. ICZM thus not only furnishes a viable land-sea  interface, but also serves as a built-in mechanism for conflict resolution and as an instrument for environmental conservation. Its policy, planning and management have accordingly to be suitably tailored. The development of Coastal and Marine Spatial Plans (CMSP) is an important step to guide decision making for the blue economy. Their purpose is not only to achieve integration between land and water segments alone, but also between the various levers of government and local stakeholders, and to encompass all spheres of activity.

The best example of a blue economy, if indeed we are looking for one, stems from the European Union. 90% of the world’s sea based wind turbines are currently in Europe. Netherlands and Denmark are deriving clean energy from ocean waves. France happens to host the largest tidal wave power plant. The number of jobs in Europe’s ocean renewable energy sector are expected to double by 2030. Norway has emerged as the world leader in curbing harmful emissions, by not only generating all its electricity through hydropower, but also in going ahead with plans to electrify as many as two-thirds of the ferries that ply along its long and jagged coastline within the next 10 years. The world’s first fully autonomous commercial vessel with zero emissions, Norway’s Yara Birkeland, will be operational for coastal use by 2020, while Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships (MASS) that trade internationally are expected to be introduced in a further five years.

Europe’s focus on the much-desired aspects of a blue economy is indeed laudable. After all, it is only through a ‘green’ approach that the sustainability factor is incorporated. Both living and non-living resources in the ocean are indeed in abundance. It has been estimated that by 2030, two out of every three fish on our dinner table will have been farmed, most of it by sea. Oil and gas are amongst the most abundant of non-living resources, with almost one-fourth of current global needs being met from offshore fields. Extreme care needs to be exercised during such deep-drilling operations to prevent oil spills like that of the Deepwater Horizon, which ravaged the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. With spills like that, one can bid the blue economy goodbye. Besides fossil fuels, as much as 500 billion tons of manganese nodules, containing manganese, iron, copper, nickel, phosphate and cobalt, are estimated to lie on the ocean floor. Gas hydrates (methane encased within water molecules) are believed to hold much more methane than presently exists in the atmosphere and up to twice the amount of energy of all fossil carbon-based fuels combined. The downside again is that methane not only adds to the greenhouse effect, but the gas is highly unstable at depths shallower than 500 metres.

The UN Convention on Law of the Sea obliges all coastal states to avoid environmental degradation; this is of paramount importance, particularly when exploration and mining work is being carried out in individual Exclusive Economic Zones. The minerals on the ocean floor beneath the High Seas have been deemed to be the ‘common heritage of mankind’, with its exploitation being administered by the International Seabed Authority. Though many licenses have been applied for and issued, actual mining has not yet been carried out.

In Pakistan, surprisingly, all major maritime initiatives, be it the setting up of the National Maritime Affairs Coordination Committee (NMACC) for maritime policy coordination, setting up of the Maritime Security Agency for policing our Exclusive Economic Zone, constituting the Marine Pollution Control Board, preparation of a National Marine Disaster Contingency plan or setting up of a Joint Maritime Information coordination Centre, carry a prominent naval stamp. This may seem perplexing to many, and perhaps rightly so, because the Navy’s role is understood to be only limited to the protection of the country’s maritime interests. The simple answer to this is that all maritime activities in Pakistan are peculiarly compartmentalised and no other Ministry or Agency is able or willing to take on the much-needed national level policy and coordination responsibilities that are beyond individual mandates. The newly-named Ministry of Maritime Affairs can be a suitable candidate for playing a lead role provided it is endowed with the desired professional capacity. A name change alone is hardly the right substitute for professional competence.

To conclude, concept of a blue economy will remain alien to a country that remains blissfully unaware of its national and international obligations, or one that has a dysfunctional Environmental Control Authority, or one that considers an investment in wastewater treatment plants too much of a burden, or one that considers the river flows that help invigorate the mangroves, biodiversity, ecosystems, flora and fauna of the Indus Delta as ‘wasted’.

The ocean is indeed an endless source of energy, and living and non-living resources, if only we learn to tap it with care. The ocean is in addition a regulator of climate change and a recycler of the world’s harmful emissions, if only we learn not to stretch it beyond limits. ‘The oceans deserve our respect and care’, says oceanographer Sylvia Earle, ‘ but you have to know something before you can care about it’. And therein lies our dilemma!

 

Note:  This article was published in the February 2019 issue of the Global Village Space magazine.

World Maritime Day 2018

 

The World Maritime Day has an added significance this year (2018) as it marks the 70th anniversary of the adoption of the Convention which established the organisation. The IMO had conceived it to promote and communicate its own achievements and objectives around a central theme. This theme is carefully chosen to reflect the flavour of the year. In 2011, the chosen theme was about piracy, but since Somali piracy at the time was already at its height, the focus was on ‘Orchestrating the Response’. The theme of Safety had been explored many times, but since the Year 2012 marked the 100th anniversary of the sinking of the Titanic, it took stock of the safety measures enforced since that time.

The theme this year, as was the case two years earlier, centers around shipping. But while in 2016 it talked about its indispensability to the world, this time around it revolves around how better shipping shapes a better future. The most important aspect of this year’s theme, however, is that it refers to Shipping as our heritage. Not to be missed is the point that any heritage needs deft, and perhaps reverential, handling.

The IMO has since long explicitly recognised Shipping to be ‘perhaps the most international of all the world’s great industries and one of the most dangerous’. Its internationalisation can be gauged from the fact that it knits ports and continents together, carrying all types of cargo, by traversing through the 71% of the globe that constitutes water. And indeed, it constitutes the major means of commodity trading of raw materials and goods produced around the world. And with the advent of containers that are not only refrigerated or temperature controlled, but also optimised to slow down the ripening of fruits, the agricultural sector is also set to join the bandwagon.

A word of caution though: Shipping has to be responsive to demand. Almost all the packaged goods are carried in container carriers, and container trade at present, after a series of mergers, is dominated by four or five companies. Most of them are opting for huge container ships of up to 23000 TEUs capacity to enable economy of scale, and if the projected trade grows sluggish, freight rates drop to the extent of shutting down the smaller players. Even the 7th largest Shipping Company, Hanjin, went bust around two years ago.

These days, the high spot charter rates, relatively low newbuild prices and burgeoning LNG trade are making shipowners hitch themselves to the LNG bandwagon. As opposed to six ships in 2016, 33 new LNG ships are on order this year to reap the harvest of an unprecedented wave of new LNG supply projects coming on stream in a relatively short period. This has also enabled shipyards to tap into new technological advancements over the past year or two to make the packages more attractive. The boom in Shipping of all varieties has also spawned equally numerous problems of all types, and the IMO has not exactly been inactive either in reacting to these challenges. Ever since the advent of steamships in the mid-19th century, safety at sea has always been a prime concern. It was the well-known Titanic disaster of 1912, however, and the shock that it generated, that led to the formulation of a comprehensive treaty on safety measures. Noting the rapidity with which amendments were required and the procedural delays which held it back from keeping pace with them, the new IMO-sponsored version of 1974 incorporated a tacit acceptance clause which enabled any amendment to automatically enter into force provided sufficient number of objections were not received by that time. The current Safety of Life at Sea Convention is thus also referred to as SOLAS ‘74.

SOLAS essentially deals with the fixing of minimum safety standards for the construction, equipment and operation of ships. Detailed technical standards, wherever required, have been established through various international codes like International Code of Safety for High Speed Craft (HSC Code), Irradiated Nuclear Fuel (INF) Code, International Safety Management (ISM) Code and the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code.

It was however only in 1985, when armed militants not only took over a cruise ship, the Achille Lauro, but also killed an aged paraplegic passenger, that the issue of ship security came to the fore. The shock waves generated resulted in the formulation of a Convention on Suppression of Unlawful Acts of Violence against the Safety of Maritime Navigation, or SUA Convention 1988 in short. It made state parties responsible for establishing their jurisdiction over the offenders as well as the laid-down offences.

It was however the much bigger horror of 9/11 that forced the IMO to come up with a comprehensive maritime security code, appropriately titled the ‘International Ship and Port Facility Security Code’, whose implementation was hastened by tabling it as an amendment to the existing SOLAS Convention. Its first part lists the mandatory requirements for governments, port authorities and shipping companies, while the second part provides guidance for implementation. Each contracting government was required to prepare and implement port facility security plans based on security assessment and risk evaluation.

In order to regulate the movements of ships under both routine and hazardous conditions, the IMO achieved a major breakthrough in 1972, when it rationalised and consolidated all the regulations for the Prevention of Collisions at Sea in a single document commonly known to seafarers as the Rules of the Road.

While such regulations did lessen the probability of collisions, they couldn’t be eliminated altogether for the simple reason that a host of other factors like poor watch keeping practises, inadequate seamanship skills, watch-keeper fatigue, high stress levels and ill-adjustment to new technologies are also at play. Human factor has been found to be the most likely cause of a majority of accidents at sea, followed by technical and environmental factors.

The human factor is aggravated by the tough working conditions faced by seafarers – months at sea, isolation, cramped living conditions, refrigerated food, noise, heat, rough seas etc. No wonder then that 26% of them were found to suffer from depression, with nearly half this number not turning to anyone for help for fear of losing their jobs.

The International Labour Organisation is the specialised agency which not only remains concerned about worker rights, but is seen to be actually doing something about it. The ILOs Maritime Labour Convention, adopted in February 2006, has set minimum standards to ensure satisfactory conditions of employment for the world’s seafarers. It has not only updated over 65 other Maritime labour instruments, but has also introduced a system of certification and inspection to enforce it.

But for countering other related causes like slack watch-keeping, electro-mechanical breakdowns and hostile elements, good training is of the essence. It was in this context that the 1995 Convention on the Standards of Training, Competency and Watch-keeping came into being. It seeks to establish a baseline for the training and education of seafarers, with competence -based training, watch-keeping standards, quality control and certification being key areas of focus. This Convention, as amended in 2010, came into force on 1 January 2012. A five year transitional period given to all member states to ensure compliance also ended in 2017.

IMO is not unmindful either, of the potential the Shipping sector possesses to cause harm to the environment. The events surrounding the Torres Canyon, which ran aground off the Isles of Sicilly in March 1967, releasing its cargo of 120,000 tons of crude oil into the sea, probably had the largest impact on the drive to upgrade marine pollution regulations. The need for new preventive legislation to stem the tide of an ever-growing number of cases of marine pollution led to the adoption of the ‘International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships 1973, which superseded OILPOL ‘54.

Although accidental discharges such as the Torrey Canyon were often more visible to the public at large, it is actually operational discharges that result in a much more consistent and significant source of oil pollution. MARPOL 73/78, as it is presently known, not only seeks to address this issue, but has kept including in its Annexes other harmful substances capable of damaging the environment.

The Convention thus incorporates detailed instructions and guidelines for the prevention and control of pollution by noxious liquid substances carried in bulk, by harmful substances carried by sea in packaged form, by sewage and garbage from ships and lastly, by air pollution from ships.

As far as air pollution is concerned, the Convention sets limits on sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from ship exhausts and prohibits deliberate emissions of ozone depleting substances. IMO has displayed foresight by enacting rules that aim to cap ships’ sulfur emissions at 0.5% of fuel content by January 2020, compared to 3.5% at present. The reason I mentioned foresight is because the percentage of such emissions at sea is barely 2-3 % of the total at the moment, but if left unchecked, is expected to rise up to 17% by 2050. The industry is understandably worried, as compliance is not only expensive but requires careful coordination. Shippers are reluctant to invest in ‘costly’ scrubbers ($ 5-10 M per vessel) to enable ships to keep using the existing cheaper HSDO. Refineries are equally cautious in undertaking the billion dollar plus upgrade to produce low sulfur gas oil for fear of not being able to recoup their investment. Though scrubbers are being installed in some new builds, more than 95% of the global fleet is likely to opt for cleaner fuel. The first LNG-fuelled bulk carrier got delivered in April this year and many more such vessels are on the way. An LNG bunker vessel has also been designed to supply gas to such ships.

The shipping industry however considers the development of automated processes and functions on board vessels to be the biggest driver of efficiency in shipping. The collection, analysis and management of huge volumes of unstructured data i.e. big data, such as data on voyage performance, ship structure, machinery, fuel consumption, traffic cargo and the weather, are expected to provide valuable insights into the operation of ships and uncover hidden patterns as well as market trends. Big analytics will also encourage the development of automated procedures and advanced technologies such as Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships (MASS).

The Yara Birkeland, a 3200 deadweight ton vessel, scheduled to enter into operation by 2020 for coastal use, will be the world’s first fully autonomous commercial vessel with zero emissions. MASS that trade internationally are expected to be introduced by 2035.

Innovation and attitudes are what matter most and for those that imbibe this principle, it will not be difficult to understand why a small country like Norway has become the world leader in curbing harmful emissions. Hydropower produces nearly all its electricity, the State Oil Company is expanding into offshore wind farming and people drive more electric cars per capita than any other country in the world. Its next target is to electrify as many as two-thirds of the boats that ply along its jagged and windy Atlantic coastline within the next 10 years.

Such technologies poses challenges to the IMO, which is not entirely unresponsive. In May this year, it has officially commenced work on looking into how safe, secure and environmentally sound MASS operations can be addressed in IMO instruments.

The International Windship Association, along with its 40 plus member countries and organisations, has also pitched in to provide alternate solutions to the Shipping industry to help meet the urgent and ambitious carbon reduction targets set by the IMO. A wide range of wind assist and primary wind propulsion technology solutions are currently available that offer between 10-30 % savings for retrofits and up to 50% on smaller new-build fully optimised vessels.

Ballast water discharges has been recognised as one of the greatest threats to the ecological and economic well-being of the planet. The Ballast Water Management Convention, which had been adopted in 2004 and came into force in Sep 2017, requires ships to manage their ballast water, which in turn will prevent the spread of invasive aquatic species that possesses the potential to cause havoc to local ecosystems.

We in Pakistan should remain ever mindful that along with our coast, our shipping, our ports and our ship building and ship recycling industries come huge responsibilities, which we can only abdicate, neglect or delegate to our peril. Apart from adhering to the given theme of the year on a specific day, the rest of the week should be spent in a stakeholders huddle to take stock of our failings and limitations, prior devoting the rest of the year towards addressing them.

It is only after we carry out the much-needed restructuring and capacity building of the Maritime industry, which taken as a whole, represents the largest slice of the global economy, that we can think of taking our rightful place in the comity of responsible Maritime states, capable of fulfilling our international obligations and harnessing our maritime potential in a sustainable manner.

Pakistan’s Coastal Pollution Dilemma

The subjects of Climate Change and Environmental Degradation continue to make headlines around the world, yet we in Pakistan remain blissfully unaware of its ramifications. To most of us Climate Change is an alien concept, while environmental pollution is limited to the heaps of garbage we see piled up in various nooks and crannies all over the city. It’s ironical that the city managers continue to grapple with such basic issues as the safe disposal of waste well into the 21st century. Candid discussions, leading to resolution of Pakistan’s festering coastal pollution nightmare, needs to be undertaken with the urgency it deserves. Any such dialogue has to perforce start off with the amazing stretch of intermeshing creeks fondly remembered as an ecological paradise, the Indus Delta, as well as the huge megacity of Karachi, which keeps intruding on its western periphery.

Though coastal pollution has its primary roots on land, it is so multi-faceted and wide-ranging in nature that it’s full implications are difficult to grasp and dangerous to ignore. There are literally tens of millions of tons of domestic waste, raw sewage, hospital discards, industrial effluents and agricultural nutrients being generated in the country every day, all of which, in the absence of any safe disposal arrangements, finds its way to the rivers, creeks and canals, where they not only pollute the country’s limited sources of drinking water, but also bring innumerable diseases in its wake.

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World Maritime Day 2017 – Connecting Ships, Ports and People

The World Maritime Day is being formally celebrated by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) on 28 September 2017. The IMO, for those who may not be aware, is the principal organ of the United Nations dealing with and coordinating all maritime related issues ranging from safety, security and environmental concerns to training standards of seafarers and even technical cooperation aspects. It is this organisation which, mindful of the massive contribution made by the international maritime industry in bolstering the global economy, instituted the World Maritime Day that has since become a regular annual feature in the calendar of all seafaring nations. The first time this day was celebrated was on 17 March 1978 to mark the 30th anniversary of the convention which created the IMOs parent organisation, the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organisation. The member states have since swelled from 21 to 169 at present. While commemorating the day, the IMO keeps highlighting a different aspect of its work each year. This day also serves as a reminder to all and sundry that a vibrant and sustainable blue economy is a boon to all mankind.

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Negotiating the Intricacies of the Maritime Domain

Abstract

From an historical perspective, activities at sea can be characterised by coastal trade, transoceanic passages, piracy, subjugation, profiteering and colonisation, a subsidiary objective being the gaining of ascendency on land. The maritime field has over time undergone a drastic transformation, both on the military and non-military fronts. Amongst a horde of other activities, sea connectivity and trade take pride of place as drivers of the global economy. The International Maritime Organisation, which cobbled together the UN Convention on Law of the Sea in 1982, assists in the crafting of much-needed maritime conventions to fulfill the vital need of establishing universally acceptable standards for maritime safety, security and environmental protection.

Present day maritime activities and processes now fall under the all-enveloping term ‘Maritime Domain’ and thus ‘Maritime Domain Awareness’ becomes a prerequisite for the materialisation of maritime aspirations. Pakistan is admittedly a coastal state but before it can even dream of becoming a maritime power, it has to shed off its historical baggage and stand prepared to overhaul its manner of doing business by creating an autonomous, effective and efficient administration. A dedicated and fully functional maritime administration is the key to looking after a state’s maritime interests, inclusive of the international obligations required of a flag state as well as the judicial exercise of Port State Control.

Being a signatory to more than two dozen odd maritime conventions, Pakistan can only satisfactorily meet its national and international obligations if it is professionally geared to do so, which is why the enactment of domestic maritime legislation continues to be a weak area. In a domain constantly in flux, stagnancy is not an option. Changes within have to be brought about, administratively, operationally and functionally, to cater to the changes without. This forms the crux of the problem which stands in the way of the country transitioning from a coastal state to a responsible coastal state to a successful maritime power.
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Appraisal of the Military Strategies of Major Powers in the Indian Ocean

Though one amongst the three large bodies of water that link countries and continents together, the Indian Ocean stands apart by virtue of its unique topography and its monsoonal wind patterns. Despite being enclosed on three sides by a contiguous land mass, with the fourth side constrained by the forces of nature, this ocean has always been receptive to coastal and transoceanic trade. Its periphery is ringed by straits, gulfs and channels, which have not only facilitated trade but have also served as chokepoints for those inclined to control the free movement of goods.
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Suez and Panama Canals – Feats of Human Ingenuity

During the heydays of the British Empire, when it was entrenching itself ever so firmly in the heart of the Indian Ocean, it could not have failed to appreciate the strategic and economic advantages that a direct trade route through the Red Sea and the Mediterranean would confer. The two seas had after all been historically linked for millennia, till an eighth century Abbasid Caliph had it closed for supposedly tactical reasons. In more modern times, the idea of building a canal through the Isthmus of Suez has been credited to the French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte, who during an expedition to Egypt in 1798, was quick to grasp its utility in pressuring his country’s  traditional foe. The plan had to be aborted soon after, when a miscalculation in the sea level measurement between the two seas scuttled its feasibility.
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